# Difference between revisions of "Back to the Beginning of Time"

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− | We know if we have traveled 100 miles steadily at 50 miles per hour, we must have left 2 hours earlier. From the redshift z we have learned how to find the velocity v. From the Hubble Law we have learned we have learned the distance d for several galaxy clusters. We should be able to learn when each one left us. | + | We know if we have traveled 100 miles steadily at 50 miles per hour, we must have left 2 hours earlier. From the redshift '''z''' we have learned how to find the velocity '''v'''. From the Hubble Law we have learned we have learned the distance '''d''' for several galaxy clusters. We should be able to learn when each one left us. |

+ | |||

+ | If you need one, click this for a [http://web2.0calc.com/ web scientific calculator]. It accepts power of ten numbers. For example, to enter 3x10<sup>5</sup> you could write 300000 or 3e5 in the calculator window. This web site also offers some help with college math. | ||

+ | |||

+ | |||

+ | |||

+ | == Virgo Cluster of Galaxies == | ||

− | |||

The Virgo cluster's velocity is 1143 km/s and its distance is 16 Mpc. | The Virgo cluster's velocity is 1143 km/s and its distance is 16 Mpc. | ||

− | + | [[File:virgo_cluster_z.jpg|600px|center]] | |

First we change 16 Mpc to kilometers. | First we change 16 Mpc to kilometers. | ||

+ | <center> | ||

one parsec = 30,900,00,000,000 km | one parsec = 30,900,00,000,000 km | ||

one megaparsec, a million parsecs = 30,900,000,000,000,000,000 km | one megaparsec, a million parsecs = 30,900,000,000,000,000,000 km | ||

+ | </center> | ||

An easier way to write this is | An easier way to write this is | ||

− | 1 Mpc = 3.09 x | + | <center> |

+ | 1 Mpc = 3.09 x 10<sup>19</sup> km | ||

+ | </center> | ||

(Note: 19 is the number of decimal places you moved to get 3.08.) | (Note: 19 is the number of decimal places you moved to get 3.08.) | ||

− | 16 Mpc must be 16 times this, or 4.94 x | + | <center> |

+ | 16 Mpc must be 16 times this, or 4.94 x 10<sup>20</sup> km. | ||

+ | </center> | ||

The time to travel those 16 Mpc was | The time to travel those 16 Mpc was | ||

− | distance 4.94 x | + | <center> |

+ | distance 4.94 x 10<sup>20</sup> km / speed 1143 km/s = 4.32 x 10<sup>17</sup> seconds | ||

+ | </center> | ||

+ | |||

+ | Since there are 3.156 x 10<sup>7</sup> (365.26x24x60x60 = 31,558,464) seconds in a year, it took '''13,860,000,000''' years for the galaxy cluster to reach 16 Mpc. | ||

− | + | The Virgo cluster of galaxies started its journey over '''13 billion years ago''' !!! | |

− | + | == Hydra Cluster of Galaxies == | |

− | |||

The Hydra Cluster is 49 Mpc away, receding at 3420 km/s. | The Hydra Cluster is 49 Mpc away, receding at 3420 km/s. | ||

− | |||

+ | [[File:hydra_galaxy_cluster_z.jpg|600px|center]] | ||

− | This is the same as we did with Virgo, but let's make it simpler to follow. We know the velocity v and the distance d. We want to find the time t to travel this distance by dividing distance by velocity | + | This is the same as we did with Virgo, but let's make it simpler to follow. We know the velocity '''v''' and the distance '''d'''. We want to find the time '''t''' to travel this distance by dividing distance by velocity |

− | t = d / v | + | <center> |

+ | '''t = d / v''' | ||

+ | </center> | ||

− | The first step is to convert the distance in Mpc to km. Since a megaparsec is 3.09 x | + | The first step is to convert the distance in Mpc to km. Since a megaparsec is 3.09 x 10<sup>19</sup> km, we just multiply 49 x 3.09 x 10<sup>19</sup> |

− | 49 Mpc must be 1.51 x | + | <center> |

+ | 49 Mpc must be 1.51 x 10<sup>21</sup> km | ||

+ | </center> | ||

− | We divide the distance 1.51 x | + | We divide the distance 1.51 x 10<sup>21</sup> km by the speed 3420 km/s, and find it took the galaxy cluster 4.42x10<sup>17</sup>seconds to travel 49 Mpc. Since there are 3.16x10<sup>7</sup> seconds in a year, it took 1.39x10<sup>10</sup> or 13.9 billion years for the galaxy cluster to reach 49 Mpc. That is, the Hydra cluster of galaxies started its journey over '''13 billion years ago''' !!! |

+ | == Coma Cluster of Galaxies == | ||

− | |||

The Coma Cluster of Galaxies is 90 Mpc distant, traveling away at 6300 km/s. | The Coma Cluster of Galaxies is 90 Mpc distant, traveling away at 6300 km/s. | ||

− | + | [[File:coma_cluster_z.jpg|600px|center]] | |

− | |||

− | |||

− | |||

− | |||

− | + | <center> | |

+ | d = 90 Mpc x 3.09 x 1019 km/Mpc = 2.78 x 10<sup>21</sup> km | ||

+ | t = 2.78 x 10<sup>21</sup> km / 6300 km/s = 4.41 x 10<sup>17</sup> seconds | ||

+ | </center> | ||

+ | Since there are 3.16x10<sup>7</sup> seconds in a year, we find it took 1.39x10<sup>10</sup> or 13,900,000,000 years for the galaxy cluster to reach 90 Mpc. That is, the Coma cluster of galaxies started its journey over '''13 billion years ago''' !!! | ||

− | Hercules Cluster of Galaxies | + | == Hercules Cluster of Galaxies == |

The Hercules Cluster of Galaxies is 154 Mpc away, receding at 10,800 km/s. | The Hercules Cluster of Galaxies is 154 Mpc away, receding at 10,800 km/s. | ||

− | |||

− | |||

− | + | [[File:hercules_galaxy_cluster_z.jpg|600px|center]] | |

− | |||

+ | <center> | ||

+ | d = 154 Mpc x 3.09 x 10<sup>19</sup> km/Mpc = 4.76 x 10<sup>21</sup> km | ||

− | + | t = 4.76 x 10<sup>21</sup> km / 10800 km/s = 4.41 x 10<sup>17</sup> seconds | |

+ | </center> | ||

+ | Since there are 3.16x10<sup>7</sup> seconds in a year, we find it took 1.39x10<sup>10</sup> or 13,900,000,000 years for the galaxy cluster to reach 154 Mpc. That is, the Hercules cluster of galaxies started its journey over '''13 billion years ago''' !!! | ||

+ | == Corona Borealis == | ||

− | |||

The Corona Borealis Cluster of Galaxies is 180 Mpc distant, receding at 12600 km/s. | The Corona Borealis Cluster of Galaxies is 180 Mpc distant, receding at 12600 km/s. | ||

− | |||

+ | [[File:corona_borealis_galaxy_cluster_z.jpg|600px|center]] | ||

− | |||

+ | Since a megaparsec is 3.09 x 10<sup>19</sup> km, then 180 Mpc must be 5.56 x 10<sup>21</sup> km. | ||

− | d = 180 Mpc x 3.09 x | + | <center> |

+ | d = 180 Mpc x 3.09 x 10<sup>19</sup> km/Mpc = 5.56 x 10<sup>21</sup> km | ||

− | t = 5.56 x | + | t = 5.56 x 10<sup>21</sup> km / 12600 km/s = 4.41 x 10<sup>17</sup> seconds |

+ | </center> | ||

− | Since there are 3. | + | Since there are 3.16x10<sup>7</sup> seconds in a year, we find it took 1.39x10<sup>10</sup> or 13,900,000,000 years for the galaxy cluster to reach 180 Mpc. That is, the Corona Borealis cluster of galaxies started its journey over '''13 billion years ago'''!!! |

+ | == The Beginning of Time == | ||

− | |||

− | Every cluster of galaxies began moving away from us at the same moment ... from the same place ... from the BIG BANG!!! | + | Every cluster of galaxies began moving away from us at the '''same moment''' ... from the '''same place''' ... from the '''BIG BANG'''!!! |

## Latest revision as of 18:38, 19 March 2012

We know if we have traveled 100 miles steadily at 50 miles per hour, we must have left 2 hours earlier. From the redshift **z** we have learned how to find the velocity **v**. From the Hubble Law we have learned we have learned the distance **d** for several galaxy clusters. We should be able to learn when each one left us.

If you need one, click this for a web scientific calculator. It accepts power of ten numbers. For example, to enter 3x10^{5} you could write 300000 or 3e5 in the calculator window. This web site also offers some help with college math.

## Contents

## Virgo Cluster of Galaxies

The Virgo cluster's velocity is 1143 km/s and its distance is 16 Mpc.

First we change 16 Mpc to kilometers.

one parsec = 30,900,00,000,000 km

one megaparsec, a million parsecs = 30,900,000,000,000,000,000 km

An easier way to write this is

1 Mpc = 3.09 x 10^{19} km

(Note: 19 is the number of decimal places you moved to get 3.08.)

16 Mpc must be 16 times this, or 4.94 x 10^{20} km.

The time to travel those 16 Mpc was

distance 4.94 x 10^{20} km / speed 1143 km/s = 4.32 x 10^{17} seconds

Since there are 3.156 x 10^{7} (365.26x24x60x60 = 31,558,464) seconds in a year, it took **13,860,000,000** years for the galaxy cluster to reach 16 Mpc.

The Virgo cluster of galaxies started its journey over **13 billion years ago** !!!

## Hydra Cluster of Galaxies

The Hydra Cluster is 49 Mpc away, receding at 3420 km/s.

This is the same as we did with Virgo, but let's make it simpler to follow. We know the velocity **v** and the distance **d**. We want to find the time **t** to travel this distance by dividing distance by velocity

**t = d / v**

The first step is to convert the distance in Mpc to km. Since a megaparsec is 3.09 x 10^{19} km, we just multiply 49 x 3.09 x 10^{19}

49 Mpc must be 1.51 x 10^{21} km

We divide the distance 1.51 x 10^{21} km by the speed 3420 km/s, and find it took the galaxy cluster 4.42x10^{17}seconds to travel 49 Mpc. Since there are 3.16x10^{7} seconds in a year, it took 1.39x10^{10} or 13.9 billion years for the galaxy cluster to reach 49 Mpc. That is, the Hydra cluster of galaxies started its journey over **13 billion years ago** !!!

## Coma Cluster of Galaxies

The Coma Cluster of Galaxies is 90 Mpc distant, traveling away at 6300 km/s.

d = 90 Mpc x 3.09 x 1019 km/Mpc = 2.78 x 10^{21} km

t = 2.78 x 10^{21} km / 6300 km/s = 4.41 x 10^{17} seconds

Since there are 3.16x10^{7} seconds in a year, we find it took 1.39x10^{10} or 13,900,000,000 years for the galaxy cluster to reach 90 Mpc. That is, the Coma cluster of galaxies started its journey over **13 billion years ago** !!!

## Hercules Cluster of Galaxies

The Hercules Cluster of Galaxies is 154 Mpc away, receding at 10,800 km/s.

d = 154 Mpc x 3.09 x 10^{19} km/Mpc = 4.76 x 10^{21} km

t = 4.76 x 10^{21} km / 10800 km/s = 4.41 x 10^{17} seconds

Since there are 3.16x10^{7} seconds in a year, we find it took 1.39x10^{10} or 13,900,000,000 years for the galaxy cluster to reach 154 Mpc. That is, the Hercules cluster of galaxies started its journey over **13 billion years ago** !!!

## Corona Borealis

The Corona Borealis Cluster of Galaxies is 180 Mpc distant, receding at 12600 km/s.

Since a megaparsec is 3.09 x 10^{19} km, then 180 Mpc must be 5.56 x 10^{21} km.

d = 180 Mpc x 3.09 x 10^{19} km/Mpc = 5.56 x 10^{21} km

t = 5.56 x 10^{21} km / 12600 km/s = 4.41 x 10^{17} seconds

Since there are 3.16x10^{7} seconds in a year, we find it took 1.39x10^{10} or 13,900,000,000 years for the galaxy cluster to reach 180 Mpc. That is, the Corona Borealis cluster of galaxies started its journey over **13 billion years ago**!!!

## The Beginning of Time

Every cluster of galaxies began moving away from us at the **same moment** ... from the **same place** ... from the **BIG BANG**!!!